Whenever we think of Punjabi wedding, the visuals of lavish decoration, loud music, unattended dancing, and sumptuous food immediately comes to our mind. This whole visual is itself a testament of the grand affair that the Punjabi weddings are. India is a land of different cultures and religion, and you can get a true glimpse of this vibrant culture in the wedding functions.
The pomp and show of the Punjabi Weddings are truly imbibed in different rituals and functions that culminate in the wedding. So, let us look at the pre-wedding functions of the Punjabi wedding:
The Glamour And Grandness Of Punjabi Wedding:
- Roka: This is an informal agreement and confirmation of the wedding between the families of the bride and groom. This function is usually performed at the bride’s place involving puja and exchange of gifts and sweets.
- Sagan or magni: This is the biggest function that happens before wedding. It is an engagement ceremony where the bride and groom exchange rings with each other. This function again is followed by exchange of gifts between the families of the bride and groom-to-be.
- Sagan or chunni chadana: At this occasion, the sister-in-law of the groom-to-be presents chunni to the bride-to-be. She is then, fed with boiled rice and milk by her mother-in law. It is followed by a havan and Tika ceremony held for blessing the bride and groom.
- Sangeet: It is the time when the true Punjabi character comes out, and the whole bride and groom family enjoy themselves in the loud music and dancing. Punjabi sangeet is loud, colorful, cheerful, and full of life. It reflects the true character of Punjabis and their philosophy of living life to the fullest.
- Mehendi: In this ceremony, the bride’s hands are decorated with beautiful henna designs. The henna is seen as a good ‘shagun.’ Even, the groom applies a little bit of Mehendi on his hand. The henna color connotes love and luck.
- Vatna: The ceremony is performed few days before the wedding. Vatna, a paste, made from turmeric, barley or chickpea flour, mustard oil and turmeric is applied on the bodies of the bride and groom-to-be. It follows a ritual bath performed in the presence of the respective families amidst the rhythms of traditional Punjabi wedding songs.
- Chuda Ceremony: This ceremony is performed at the maternal uncle’s place. The bride-to be is put on with a set of red and cream ivory bangles, also known as chuda. The chuda is a marriage symbol, which she can take out only after a fixed period. Also, a havan is performed by the priest to put iron bangle with shells and beads along with a mauli on the girl’s hand. The ceremony ends with the distribution of Prasad.So, these were the ceremonies that happen before the wedding takes place. There are many more that take place on the day of the wedding as well as after wedding. But, one thing is common about all these functions are that they all are full of life and celebration which is enhanced even more with dance and music.
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The tying of the nuptial knot in traditional Bengali wedding entails a series of elaborate and colorful rituals. The Bengali wedding is an elaborate and long affair. The wedding rituals spans the period of three days, which includes pre-wedding, wedding and post-wedding rituals. Blowing of the conch shell and ululation by the women gathered at the wedding venue heralds the beginning of a traditional Bengali marriage.
- Ashirbaad - On an auspicious day, the elders of the groom’s side go to bless the bride by sprinkling husked rice and trefoil on their heads and giving them gold ornaments. The same is done by the bride’s family for the groom. This symbolizes acceptance of the boy and the girl from both sides.
- Decoration - An alpona (rangoli) is drawn and designs like lotus flowers or fish may depict various auspicious elements of the wedding. In addition, a small banana tree is placed at the entrance of the house. Under the tree a copper vessel called mangal ghot is placed. The door is decorated with a string of mango leaves, which stays on for a period of one year after the marriage.
- Vridhi Ceremony - In this ceremony, the ancestors are worshipped. This takes place both in the house of the bride as well as the groom.
- Holud Kota - In this ceremony, five or seven married women of the household grind turmeric with mortar and pestle and anoint the bride with turmeric paste. This adds radiance to the bride’s complexion and makes her skin glow.
- Adhibash - At the eve of the marriage day, seven married ladies adorn the bride’s hands with the traditional bangles Shakha and Paula that are one pair of red and one pair of white bangles respectively.
- Wedding Piris - Piris are artistically designed and painted wooden planks usually decorated by a close friend or relative. The bride and the groom sit together on these piris followed by the blowing of Conch Shells.
- Tattvas - Tattvas are the gifts that are exchanged between the bride’s family and the groom’s family before and after the wedding. The gifts that are sent to the bride from the groom’s house are called Gae hallud tattva. Along the same lines, the gifts that go to the groom’s house from the bride’s house are called Adhibas Tattva.
Main Wedding Rituals
- Bor Jatri - The groom and his family members as well as his friends dress in their best attire and journey to the bride’s house where the wedding takes place.
- Bor Boron - When the bor jatri reaches the bride’s place, the mother of the bride along with other members welcome the groom and his family with the holy earthen lamp, sprinkling trefoil, and husked rice placed on a bamboo winnow (kula). They are then served with sweets and drinks.
- Potto Bastra - The groom is seated at the chadnatolla (wedding altar and canopy), that is the sanctum sanctorum where only the groom, bride and the priest takes their place. There the groom is offered new clothes by the person who is to do the sampradaan – a kind of gift to the boy from the girl’s side.
- Saat Paak - In this ceremony, the bride is seated on a low wooden stool called piri and is lifted by her brothers and is taken round the groom in seven complete circles. The significance is that they are eternally joined to each other.
- Mala Badal - After the circles are completed, the bride perched high on the piri exchanges garlands of fragrant flowers with the groom for three times. This marks the first step in which they accept each other.
- Subho Dristi - After garlanding one another the bride and the groom are made to look at each other in front of all the assembled invitees. This occasion is characterized by fun and revelry as the couple are on the receiving end of teasing comments and jokes from their relatives.
- Yagna - The bride and groom sit in front of the sacred fire and chant mantras after the priest. The fire god, Agni, is made the divine witness to the marriage.
- Anjali - An offering is made to the fire. The bride’s brother puts puffed rice (khoi) in the hands of the bride, and the groom standing close to her holds her hands from the back and extends their arms forward. They then pour the offering into the fire together.
- Sindoor Daan and Ghomta - Once again seated at their respective places in chadnatolla the groom applies sindoor or vermilion (a symbol of marriage worn by Hindu women thereafter) on the bride’s hair-parting. The bride then covers her head with a new sari offered by the groom as Ghomta or veil.
- Bidaay - This symbolizes the emotion-packed farewell moment. This moment is a mixture of joy and sorrow as the bride bids adieu with blessings of her parents and relatives to start a new life with her beau.
- Kaal Ratri - After the couple reaches the groom’s house and the initial welcome ceremony is over they are separated for the night. This is done probably to get a refreshing sleep and prepare for the next day’s final wedding ceremony.
- Bou Bhaat & Bodhu Boron - The girl cooks food items and herself serves all the members of her husband’s family. A feast is held in her honor to treat the guests who bestow gifts on the new bride.
- Phool Shojja - The married couple is left alone together for the first time in their room to enjoy conjugal bliss on a bed laid with flowers.
The traditional Bengali wedding is an amalgamation of several rituals both somber and fun-filled. The marriage not only symbolizes the joining of two entities in a never-ending bond but also is an occasion that is marked with familial togetherness and unity. A concept that is increasing getting lost in today’s modern, nuclear and fast-paced lifestyle.
Thinking of Assam conjures up images of an exotic landscape with lush valleys, exotic wildlife and the enigma of the orient. Assamese matrimony is an enchanting affair to watch that reflects the culture of this eastern state and for those getting married; it is a fascinating experience that brings them even closer. A traditional Assamese Wedding, also called ‘Biya’ consists of various customs and traditions that are based on the ancient rituals written in the Vedic Texts.
In this ceremony, the mother of the Groom visits the Bride’s home together with the relatives. They are welcomed with a brass plate having a stem and leaves of Betel on it. The whole thing is covered with a Gamocha- a special cloth which is specially woven for the purpose.
- Tel Diya
A main custom, the Tel Diya ceremony is commenced by placing a ring and Betel Nut on the Bride’s hair parting by the Groom’s mother. After this, oil is poured three times on the Betel and Sindoor is applied. The wedding dress including the traditional ‘Mekhla Chadar’ is then presented to the Bride.
- Pani Tola
This is a ritual where the mothers of the Bride and Groom collect Holy Water for the ceremonial bath. The bath, called ‘Nuani’ is another ceremony where the Bride is covered in cosmetic pastes and then bathed in the Holy Water to get ready.
- Ceremonial Bath
An extension of the bath at the Bride and Groom’s place is an interesting and fun-filled ceremony that takes place at their respective homes. After bathing the Bride and Groom are decked up in traditional shawl, jewels and finery.
- Wedding Reception
An extravagant affair, the reception ceremony of an Assamese Wedding takes place before the wedding itself. Families, friends and members of the community are served traditional food that mainly consists of Fish and Meat, right from the appetizers to the main course.
- Arrival Of Groom
The Groom is welcomed with a Rice Shower and his friends and relatives save him from this by holding an umbrella as a ceremonial gesture. But an interesting part is that they can only enter the Bride’s home after paying a price and giving reasons why they want to get married to their girl. The whole affair is very humorous and after that the Groom is welcomed by his future mother-in-law.
- Wedding Ceremony
The Bride and Groom are taken to the wedding venue by the maternal uncle and brother of the Bride. After exchanging flower garlands, the Hindu wedding ritual begins with much fanfare. After taking the vows, the Groom puts Sindoor on the forehead of the Bride and Conch Shells are blown to mark the culmination of the wedding. The newlyweds then receive the blessings from elders and an auspicious time is fixed for their departure.
Post the wedding, the Bride arrives at her in-laws home, where a grand Grah Pravesh ceremony is held for warmly welcoming her. The mother-in-law blesses the Bride and performs a ritual with an aarti to wish her good luck for her married life.